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New Testament Survey
Lesson Four

Luke

The Gospel of Luke has the greatest amount of information regarding its beginning of the all the gospels.  The book is addressed to a man named Theophilus which means literally "lover of God" or "loved of God".  Theophilus was most likely a man of the upper class since the term "most excellent" was only used of officials or members of the aristocracy.  He may have been a person converted by Luke or a patron who helped distribute his works.

1. Luke contains 24 chapters

2. Luke is the author of the book.  He was a medical doctor which is seen by the use of medical terms in both his writings and the comment of Paul in Col. 4:10-14.

3. The dates given for the writing of Luke vary from A.D.58 to A.D. 135, however it must have been written before the book of Acts and after Christianity had developed to a point here it was attracting the interest of Gentiles like Theophilus.  The date of A.D. 135 can be discarded, the whole of the New Testament was completed by A.D. 70.  It was probably written about A.D.52 or possibly A.D. 60.

4. The place of its writing is unknown.  It is thought to have been written outside Palestine, although another possibility is that it was composed at Caesarea.  There is not even a reliable early tradition as to it's place of origin.

5. Luke wrote his gospel for the Gentiles and for the Greeks in particular.  This gospel brings women and children before us more than any other gospel.  

Theme

The theme of the Gospel is Christ and it concentrates on Him as the Ideal Man.  He is the perfect man who can save imperfect men.

Christ


Christ is seen as the Son of Man, the ideal and perfect  man.  He is also seen as the sympathetic High Priest, and Saviour of men.

Key Words


The key words are Son of Man which appears at least 16 times in the book.

Key Verse


Lk.19:10 For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.

Purpose


1. A major purpose was to given a complete account of the life of Christ from His birth to His ascension.

2. Another purpose would be to show that God uses the educated as well as the uneducated in presenting His truth. God meets man on the level he can relate to.

3. It was written to give the account of the life of Christ from another perspective.

4. It was given to encourage the Gentiles in the things they had come to believe.

5. In tracing the ancestry of Christ back to Adam, the first man, He is showing that Christ is the last Adam and the second man.



Events and Characters


1. The conception and birth of John the Baptist, the meeting of Elizabeth and Mary and the prophecy of Zacharias, are a part of the introduction to the book.   The decree of Augustus is given, so Mary and Joseph go to Bethlehem where Jesus is born.  The angels announce His birth to the shepherds.  When He is circumcised Simeon and Anna recognize who He is.  He goes to the temple at the age of 12 and questions the doctors of the law who are amazed at His understanding.  His parents come back for Him and He returns home with them.

John comes baptizing and testifies of Christ.  He baptizes Jesus.  Herod imprisons John.  Luke then gives the genealogy of Jesus from Joseph.

2. Jesus goes into the wilderness and is tempted of the devil.  He begins to preach and performs miracles of healing, including the healing of Peter's mother-in-law. Using Peter's ship Jesus teaches the people.  He performs the miracle of the draught of fish, heals the leper and others.  He prays in the wilderness and calls Matthew.  He chose the twelve apostles after reproving the Pharisees regarding the observance of the sabbath. Christ finds more faith in the centurion than the Jews so heals his servant.  He shows the messenger of John the miracles as proof of His Messiahship.

3. Women are part of those who minister to Him.  He teaches by parables and continues to work miracles.  He sends out His apostles. Herod desires to see Him. He is transfigured.  He then sends out seventy disciples.  He rebukes the Pharisees, reaches to the people and again rebukes the Pharisees for their out ward show. Christ teaches His disciples to beware of such things as covetousness, hypocrisy, worldly carefulness, and division.  He continues to preach repentance and speaks in parables, including the lost sheep, the lost coin and the lost son.  He takes time to bless the children.

4. Christ rides into Jerusalem and He also weeps over the city. he drives out the money changers, teaches daily in the temple.  The rulers seek to kill Him, but they fear the people.  He is questioned about His authority and He answers by offering a question about John's baptism.  He silences those sent to catch Him in His words, and warns His disciples to be wary of the scribes.  He foretells the destruction of Jerusalem and gives sign of its nearness.

5. The disciples prepare the passover and Christ institutes the Lord's supper.  He prays in the garden, is betrayed, heals Malchus' ear and is denied by Peter.  He is brought before Pilate who sends Him to Herod, who in turn sends Him back to Pilate.  He is given to be crucified, foretells the destruction of Jerusalem, prays for His enemies and dies.  He is buried by Joseph of Arimathea and the women of Galilee observed where He was buried.  On the first day of the week the angels declare His resurrection . He appears to the disciples on the Emmaus road. He appears to the Apostles and instructs them to wait in Jerusalem until they receive the power of the Holy Spirit.


Lessons to Remember


1. God relates the Gospel to all types of people, educated and uneducated, rich or poor.

2. The circumstances of His birth show us that He can like a great High Priest identify with lost humanity.

3. We, like the Master, are to be going about doing good.

4. There is opposition to the gospel, especially from the religious world, but that is not to deter the preaching of he gospel.

5. A heart holiness is the only thing that pleases God, outward holiness can be a facade.

6. The purposes of God are not always understood, but they will be fulfilled even when people in ignorance think they are thwarting them.

7. There are dark times in our walk with God, but He will sustain us and bring us to the light.



Outline


I.  The Announcement and Advent      1  -  4:13

    A. Preface      1  -  4
    B. Announcement of the Forerunner       1:5  -  25
    C. Annunciation to Mary      1:26  -  38
    D. Mary Visits Elizabeth      1:39  -  56
    E. Birth of John       1:57  -  80
    F. Birth of Jesus      2:1  -  20
    G. Circumcision      2:21
    H. Dedication      2:22  -  39
    I. Boyhood       2:40  -  52
    J. Ministry of John        3:1  -  20
    K. Baptism      3:21  -  22
    L. Genealogy of Jesus      3:23  -  38
    M. Temptation       4:1  -  13

II.  The Words and Works of the Son of Man       4:14 - 19:27

    A. Rejected at Nazareth      4:14  -  30
    B. Teaches and Heals in Galilee      4:31  -  44
    C. Calls Disciples, Heals Sick      5
    D. 12 Chosen and Taught       6
    E. Miracles, John's Disciples Visit      7
    F. Parables, Calms the Sea, Dead Raised        8
    G. 5000 Fed, Transfiguration      9
    H. Sends out the 70, Denounces Unbelieving cities, Mary & Martha           10
    I. Parables and Teaching    11  -  14
    J. Lost Sheep, Coin and Son    15
    K. More Teaching and Miracles    16:1  -  19:27

III.  Suffering and Death of the Son of Man    19:28 - 23:56

    A. Triumphal Entry, Temple Cleansed     19:28 - 48
    B. Answers Questions    20
    C. Prophetic Disclosure     21
    D. Last Supper, Betrayal, Examination     22
    E. Crucifixion and Burial    23
    F. Resurrection and Ascension    24



Outline (Alternative)


I.  The Preface      1:1  -  4

II.  The Preparation for the Saviour      1:5  -  2:52
   
    A. The Annunciations      1:5  -  56
    B. The Birth of John       1:57  -  80
    C. The Birth and Childhood of Jesus         2:1  -  52

III.  The Introduction of the Saviour      3:1  -  4:15

    A. The Ministry of John      3:1  -  20
    B. The Baptism        3:21  -  22
    C. The Genealogy         3:23  -  38
    D. The Temptation       4:1  -  13
    E. The Return to Galilee      4:14  -  15

 IV.  The Ministry of the Saviour      4:16  -  9:50

    A. His Announcement of Purpose      4:16  -  44
    B. His Manifestation of Power      5:1  -  6:11
    C. His Appointment of Helpers      6:12  -  19
    D. His Declaration of Principles      6:20  -  49
    E. His Ministry of Compassion        7:1  -  9:17
    F. His Revelation of the Cross      9:18  -  50

V.  The Mission of the Saviour      9:51  -  18:30

    A. The Public Challenge      9:51  -  62
    B. The Appointment of the Seventy    10:1  -  24
    C. The Teaching of the Kingdom    10:25 - 13:21
    D. The Rise of Public Conflict    13:22 - 16:31
    E. The Instruction of the Disciples    17:1  -  18:30

VI.  The Passion of the Saviour      18:31 - 23:56

    A. Events En Route to Jerusalem    18:31 -  19:27
    B. Arrival at Jerusalem    19:28  -  44
    C. Conflict at Jerusalem    19:45  -  21:4
    D. Predictions Concerning Jerusalem     21:5  -  38
    E. The Last Supper     22:1  -  38
    F. The Betrayal     22:39  -  53
    G. The Arrest and Trial     22:54 -  23:25
    H. The Crucifixion 2    3:26  -  49
    I. The Burial      23:50  -  56

VII.  The Resurrection of the Saviour    24:1  -  53

    A. The Empty Tomb    24:1  -  12
    B. The Appearance at Emmaus    24:13  -  35
    C. The Manifestation to the Disciples      24:36  -  43
    D. The Commission     24:44  -  49
    E. The Ascension    24:50 - 53

*****
Feed Yourself Students:

Before the next lesson do the following:

1.  Read through the Book Of John two or three times.

2.  Do an outline of the Book of John.



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